Papers Crossing Boundaries Proceedings 2023 – Kaunas

Vocational Education and Training Transformations for Digital, Sustainable and Socially Fair Future. Proceedings of the 5th Crossing Boundaries Conference in Vocational Education and Training, Kaunas, 25. — 26. May 2023

Tūtlys, Vidmantas, Vaitkutė, Lina, Nägele, Christof. (Eds.).


This collection of conference papers presents the Proceedings of the Sth Crossing Boundaries Conference in Vocational Education and Training, taking place from 25 to 26 May 2023 in Kaunas, Lithuania. The current proceedings continue the tradition that started in Bremen in 2015, followed by Rostock in 2017, Valencia in 2019, Muttenz and Bern in 2021. Like the conference itself, the publication of proceedings follows the open access principle to facilitate the open sharing of knowledge and research ideas in the community of VET researchers.

The Crossing Boundary is a free-of-charge conference of VET research aiming to promote an open, multidisciplinary and future-oriented VET research agenda worldwide. The special focus of this conference is on vocational education and training transformations for a digital, sustainable and socially fair future. The proceedings of the 5th conference include 56 papers written by more than 115 scholars according to the three thematic strands: systems and policy of VET and lifelong learning, educational institutions and institutional settings in the VET and skill formation, VET actors and stakeholders. The topics of conference papers are very diverse and provide insights on the VET development in the conditions of digitalization, changing roles of the VET providers, teachers and learners, sustainability of the VET provision, challenges of the VET provision in the developing economies, empowering effects of VET, changing roles
and work of VET teaching staff and many other issues.

Participants were selected based on a proposal submitted for the conference, which went through a double-blind review process. If accepted, a short full paper had to be handed in before the conference to be published in the book of proceedings. Submitting a paper is a necessary condition for participation in the conference. Although the conference papers are edited, the responsibility for the papers resides with the authors, as well as the copyright.

We want to thank our VETNET colleagues for their support in the review process, without which the proceedings would not have been ready before the conference. Of course, authors and co-authors are the most important contributors to this volume and, therefore, need to be thanked for their effort.

You will find the papers for download on this site. A printed book can be ordered through

Dr Vidmantas Tūtlys, Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania
Dr Lina Vaitkute, Verona University, Italy and Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania
Dr Christof Nägele, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland

Keynote Speeches

Presentations: Skill Formation in Central and Eastern Europe / Changes in Vocational Education and Training in Lithuania / Vocational education and training in the post-war reconstruction of Ukraine


Evaluation of resources for teaching of technical and vocational education and training courses in technical colleges in Osun State, Nigeria. Adebisi, Tajudeen Adewumi

The attractiveness of the industrial technology program among newly arrived students in Sweden. Asghari, Hamid.

AI pioneers: Developing a community of practice for artificial intelligence (AI) and vocational education and training. Attwell, Graham, Deitmer, Ludger, Bekiaridis, George.

Investment in human capital: Company expenditures on continuing vocational training in times of technological change in Germany. Baum, Myriam, Fournier, Lisa.

Open content development as a challenge and an opportunity (Hungarian Case). Benedek, András, Sik, David.

Similarities and differences in the evolution of VET in Hungary and Poland 1989–2022. Benke, Magdolna, Rachwał, Tomasz. https://10.5281/zenodo.7808250

Promoting VET by implementing a “dual system” in Ukraine. Braun, Vera, Melnyk, Oksana.

Promoting citizenship competence in Italian vocational education and training through assessment. Brescianini, Flavio.

Challenges and helpful conditions for vocational teachers in Europe. Findings from the “VETteach” project. Brevik, Birger, Kaiser, Franz, Hoppe, Melanie.

A Bootcamp as an experiential learning activity for nurturing creative talent: A Hong Kong case study. Chan, Kara, Fung, Maggie, Lau, Justin, Zhang, Jasmine.

Competence retention for non-routine-situations in digital working environments (condition): Studies based on the professions of chemical technician and pharmaceutical technician. Conein, Stephanie.

The Covid-19 pandemic impacts on apprentices’ occupational health in Western Switzerland: Between invisibilisation of their status and ordinary suffering. Descloux, Gilles, Romanens, Mathilde, Lamamra, Nadia, Duc, Barbara.  https://10.5281/zenodo.7808494

Young apprentices’ critical perspectives on the curriculum of Portuguese apprenticeship courses. Doroftei, Alexandra.

On the planned apprenticeship guarantee for Germany: An attempt to reduce the risk of social exclusion during the transition from school to VET? Eckelt, Marcus.

Swiss VET – A successful model and its sacrifices on the balance of power between company- and school-based VET in the political governance of the transition to upper-secondary level in Switzerland. Esposito, Raffaella Simona.

Sitting on the fence: Adapt or import? – A study on training activities of foreign multinationals in Germany. Finken, Lena, Pilz, Matthias.

Dual apprenticeship and continuous vocational training of German family businesses in Central and Eastern Europe: Commitment, motives and trends. Gessler, Michael, Peters, Susanne.

Arts-based educational research in action in vocational education. Gregson, Daniel.

If it was going to work it would have worked by now. Gregson, Margaret.

Online and soft skills trainings in vocational education in international context: Reflections about the state-of-the-art and future potential on the example of China. Hamann, Karin, Rickert, Anne, Yang, Shun.

From work force immigration to inclusion: A study of vocational education & training development in relation to society changes and immigration in a historical perspective. Herrera, Lazaro, Broberg, Åsa. Osman, Ali

The apprentice perspective: A blind spot in the governance of VET systems? A German-Danish-Swiss comparison. Hippach-Schneider, Ute, Grobe-Rath, Janine.

How an apprenticeship can direct learners beyond the local context of teaching and learning: Transferable skills in Germany’s dual system of vocational education. Höhns, Gabriela.

“Making a virtue of necessity”: Substitution potentials in the face of the shortage of skilled workers – ways to a sustainable future using the example of the German vocational training system. Ixmeier, Sebastian, Muenk, Dieter, Muscati, Nina.

Building bridges between higher education, vocational learning and employment: Fostering a sustainable ecosystem through practically based higher education (HE) models. Kersh, Natasha, Laczik, Andrea, Emms, Katherine.

Using smartphones for learning: A case study on the impact of digitalization on aprenticeship in the informal sector in Ghana. Krichewsky-Wegener, Léna, Brück, Lukas.

Women in information and communication technology: Creating opportunities for career changers towards IT and IT-mixed professions. Kühn, Ida Kristina, Ambrosi, Valerie, Kaune, Peter.

Comparing dualised forms of initial VET across countries: Insights from the IEM survey. Le Mouillour, Isabelle, Neff, Daniel, Klein, Paula.

Quality management in vocational education and training: A reflection on educational governance in Austria, Germany and Spain. Li, Junmin, Schlüter, Ekaterina, Hautz, Hannes, Bell, Julián, Marhuenda, Fernando.

Vocational students at risk of social exclusion in Estonia: Social ecology approach. Loogma, Krista, Ümarik, Meril, Bentsalo, Inna, Väljataga, Terje.

A narrative understanding of boundary crossing by vocational teachers in their career path. Maret, Aasa, Loogma, Krista.

Vocational education and training offered in second chance schools in Spain: Possibilities and limits from an organizational analysis. Marhuenda, Fernando

Gentle guidance does it? Are public employment service recommendations affecting adjustment of IVET capacities in Croatia? Matković, Teo.

Social partners’ conceptions of their role in school-based initial vocational training of specialists. Mičiulienė, Rita.

Defining green occupational groups in the Spanish vocational education and training system: An emerging approach. Moso-Diez, Monica, Gamboa, Juan P., Albizu-Echevarria, Mikel, Mondaca-Soto, Antonio.

Lecturer industrial attachment for TVET teachers in Kenya: Access, challenges, opportunities. Njenga, Moses.

Innovation in vocational training: An action research project. Ostuni, Chiara.

Instructional technologies and training models in Industry 4.0: An explorative literature review. Perini, Marco, Sartori, Riccardo.

Motivation in international VET cooperation: VET providers and their engagement in transfer. Peters, Susanne, Meyne, Lisa

VET, patience and the wealth of nations. Peters, Susanne, Siemer, Christine

Study success in course of TVET- Results of a mixed-methods study. Pletscher, Joana.

Italian higher technical education: Reactive or proactive institution in the skill ecosystem? Potestio, Andrea, Magni, Francesco, Bertuletti, Paolo.

Co-creation and indirect approach as a methodology to improve student engagement in initial and continuing VET. Quintana-Murci, Elena, Salvà-Mut, Francesca, Pinya Medina, Carme, Vecina Merchante, Carlos, Thomàs-Vanrell, Caterina, Rosselló-Rosselló, Carme, Vilasís-Pamos, Júlia.

Framing an environment and sustainability lens on vocational education and training (VET): A laminated system analysis. Ramsarup, Presha, Lotz-Sisitka, Heila, McGrath, Simon.

A sector qualification framework (SQF) level 2-7 for industrial shoe production. Saniter, Andreas, Harberts, Vivian.

Hydrogen as a future topic in German VET? — Research design and initial findings from the research project H2PRO. Schneider, Maximilian.

Modelling skills mismatch evolution in the European Union. Sekmokas, Mantas, Sai, Ashish Rajendra, Friedel, Maria, Tilon, Naomi.

Recognizing foreign acquired VET qualifications: Potential to empower and challenge skill formation ecosystems. Serhati, Jehona, Wanklin, Linda.

The impact of collaboration among vocational teachers implementing teaching practices during a state of emergency. Sirk, Meidi.

Emotional intelligence and scholastic achievement in VET. A study among apprentices in healthcare and social care. Tremonte-Freydefont, Laure, Fiori, Marina, Wenger, Matilde.

Vocational aspects of empowering at-risk VET students in the Baltic countries and Norway for employment and lifelong learning. Tūtlys, Vidmantas, Kaminskienė, Lina, Tikkanen, Tarja, Gerdien-Bruin, Marieke, Sloka, Biruta, Ümarik, Meril.

Lehrkunstdidaktik and its potential for vocational didactics. Tyson, Ruhi.

Outside-in: Public-private partnerships upgrading the institutional equilibrium in Morocco, the Netherlands and Serbia. Van der Meer, Marc, Taurelli, Siria, Avagyan, Aram.

Beyond the classroom: Exploring teacher agency in making and breaking educational reforms. Wanklin, Linda.

What Swiss in-company trainers want: Needs, interests, and availability for continuing education. Wenger, Matilde, Lamamra, Nadia