Papers Crossing Boundaries Proceedings 2021 – Muttenz and Bern online

Editorial / Keynote Speeches / Single Papers / Call for Papers (closed)


It is our great pleasure to present the Proceedings of the 4th Crossing Boundaries Conference in Vocational Education and Training, which took place online from 8 to 9 April 2021 in Muttenz and Bern, Switzerland. The current proceedings continue the tradition that started in Bremen 2015, followed by Rostock 2017 and Valencia 2019, and joins the collection of the VETNET ECER publications that Nägele and Stalder initiated in 2018. VETNET publications are truly open access publications. We believe it is essential to facilitate discussion and cooperation among the VET research community members, both in terms of research objects, theoretical foundations, methodological strategies, and significant findings of the diverse research projects.

The Crossing Boundary is a free-of-charge, specialist group conference. It connects researchers worldwide and supports mutual learning, which becomes even more critical when physical mobility is limited. When we launched the conference call, we invited contributors to focus on vocational education and training pathways and lifelong learning. Individuals must handle a multitude of challenges during their career. We believe it’s important to constantly reflect on how VET systems and actors contribute to sustainable and meaningful careers of individuals and how they link up with societal and economic developments. The proceedings include more than 60 papers written by more than 130 scholars. They give evidence on vivid research in vocational education and training addressing attractive initial VET, developing VET systems, internationalisation of VET, teachers and trainers, inclusion, innovation, skills development, and boundary-crossing. It was impressive to follow the intense and focused discussion during the conference.

Participants were selected based on submitting a proposal for the conference, which went through a double-blind review process. If accepted, a short full paper had to be handed in before the conference to be published in the book of proceedings. Our philosophy: No participation and presentation without a paper! The editors read all contributions to correct for severe errors and the layout. However, the responsibility for the papers resides with the authors, as well as the copyright.

We want to thank our VETNET colleagues for their support in the review process, without which the proceedings would not have been ready before the conference. Of course, authors and co-authors are the most important contributors to this volume and, therefore, be thanked for their effort.

You will find all papers for download on this page. A printed book can be ordered through

Dr Christof Nägele, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland
Prof. Dr Barbara E. Stalder & Dr Miriam Weich, Bern University of Teacher Education

Keynote Speeches

All papers are available on Follow the links given on this page or visit the VETNET community on

How Roche Leverages the Momentum of Apprenticeship Training as a Major Opportunity to Develop a Flexible Workforce With an Agile Mindset, Future-Oriented Critical Skills and a Natural Understanding of the Importance of Lifelong Learning and Reskilling
Corpataux, Serge LINK – see also here for more information on the apprenticeship programme of Roche.

Personal Curriculum: Worklife Learning Pathways and VET
Billett, Stephen LINK

Single Papers, alphabetical order

The Impact of Virtual Reality on Learning Processes and Learning Outcome. A Study of VR-Based Learning Among Social and Health Care Staff and Students
Aarkrog, Vibe LINK

Transition into Tertiary Education After VET and the Role of the Work Area – a Longitudinal Study on Gender Segregation in the Field of Social Care
Aeschlimann, Belinda / Neumann, Jörg / Trede, Ines LINK

Compromises in Occupational Choice and Stability of Vocational Education and Training
Ahrens, Lea / Fischer, Melanie / Kleinert, Corinna / Schels, Brigitte LINK

Explaining the Persistent Weakness of Formal Vocational Education Systems in Sub-Saharan African Countries / Allais, Stephanie LINK

Digitally Enhanced Apprentices’ Perception of Connectivity Across Learning Locations
Amenduni, Francesca / Cattaneo, Alberto LINK

Learning Pathways Between University, School and Working Life When Student Teachers Use Digital Multimodal Logbooks to Cross Boundaries
Andersén, Annelie / Kilbrink, Nina / Enochsson, Ann-Britt / Ådefors, Annica LINK

The Local Organisation of Vocational Adult Education in Sweden
Andersson, Per / Muhrman, Karolina LINK

New Determination of the Value of Vocational and Higher Education? Employees’ Educational Choices, Careers and Labour Market Outcomes in Germany
Annen, Silvia / Tiemann, Michael LINK

Teacher Training Using Peer Observation and Video-Based Fieldwork: Observing Linguistic Input Quality in German as a Foreign Language Lessons at Elementary School
Asgari, Marjan / Zanin, Renata LINK

MOOCs and Artificial Intelligence – Potentials for the Professional Development of VET Teachers and Trainers
Attwell, Graham / Roppertz, Pontydysgu Sophia / Deitmer, Ludger LINK

Supporting Apprentices’ Autonomy in Vocational Training – Insights Into the Practices at the Swiss Post
Barabasch, Antje / Briante, Fabio LINK

The Role of Vocational Training Institutions in Reducing Disadvantage
Benke, Magdolna LINK

Drivers and Barriers of Scaling-Up a Dual VET-Apprenticeship Programme in Nepal
Bolli, Thomas / Kemper, Johanna / Parajuli, Mahesh Nath / Renold, Ursula / Thapa, Binayak Krishna LINK

Adult Learning and Education Qualifications – Crisis-Related Pedagogies for Lifelong Learning
Bothma, Piet / Naiker, Vasidevan LINK

The Adoption of Sector Skills Councils in Chile
Bravo, Paulina LINK

Testing the Theory of Planned Behavior in the Field of Tax Compliance Among Students from Vocational Business Colleges
Cechovsky, Nora LINK

To What Extent Does the Educational Biography of VET Teachers Influence the Understanding of Mentoring. Interim Results from the Mentor Qualification in Mecklenburg Western Pomerania
Dahn, Stephanie / Struck, Philipp / Kaiser, Franz LINK

Initial Vocational Training Dominated by the Academic Convention: How Do Trainers Fare?
David, Pauline LINK

On the Relationship of Politics and Research of Vocational Education and Training in Germany
Eckelt, Marcus LINK

Local Policies and Educational Exclusion. The Experience of a City Council’s Socio-Occupational Centres Network in Spain
García-Goncet, Daniel / Vigo-Arrazola, Begoña LINK

Social Capital and Sustainability in International VET Cooperation
Gessler, Michael / Siemer, Christine LINK

Design of Work Process Oriented Digital Learning Systems Based on Work Analysis
Goppold, Marvin / Frenz, Martin / Nitsch, Verena LINK

Country Size and Educational Change: Comparing Reforms of Skill Formation in Germany and Switzerland
Graf, Lukas LINK

Access and Barriers to VET for Refugees – a Comparison of Austria, Denmark and Germany
Hautz, Hannes / Li, Junmin / Jørgensen, Christian Helms LINK

“Learning Is Not the Main Thing; The Main Thing Is to Be Human”: Teacher Identity in Vocational Schools in Israel
Haybi Barak, Mirit / Shoshana, Avihu LINK

A Time for Transformation of Governance Structures in VET? A German/Swiss Comparison
Hippach-Schneider, Ute / Rieder, Elena LINK

Comparing VET Teacher Education at University Level in Five European Countries
Hoppe, Melanie / Kaiser, Franz LINK

The Limitations of European Comparative Studies in Vocational Education and Training Research and the Development of a Perspective to their Reduction
Isacsson, Annica / Brevik, Birger / Struck, Philipp / Juan, Andrea Pons LINK

Paradoxical Narratives About Industrial Technology
Johansson, Maria C. / Asghari, Hamid LINK

Common Challenges European VET Teachers as Innovators Are Facing and Their Impact on Academic VET Teacher Education
Kaiser, Franz / Marhuenda Fluixá, Fernando / Palomares-Montero, Davinia LINK

Individualizing Workplace Learning with Digital Technologies. New Learning Cultures in Swiss Apprenticeship Training
Keller, Anna / Barabasch, Antje LINK

Language Promotion for Refugees in VET: How to Prepare Vocational Student Teachers for a Language-Sensitive Mentoring with Refugees in Apprenticeships? / Kimmelmann, Nicole LINK

A Sociocultural Approach to Interprofessional Learning and Collaboration in Robotic-Assisted Surgery: Challenges of the Scientification of Work in the Operating Room
Kloetzer, Laure / Cristofari, Hélène LINK

Exploring the Learning Potential of Internships Abroad in VET from a Student’s Perspective
Krichewsky-Wegener, Léna LINK

Internationalisation Strategies of German VET Providers: Core Driving Forces and Reflections About Demand
Kühn, Ida Kristina / Holle, Larissa LINK

Crossing Boundaries in Higher Education: Linking Theory to Practice with two UK Case Studies
Laczik, Andrea / Kersh, Natasha / Emms, Katharine LINK

From Employee to Expert – Towards a Corona-Sensitive Approach for Data Collection
Langemeyer, Ines / Gronau, Norbert / Schmid-Walz, Sabrina / Kotarski, David / Reimann, Daniela / Teichmann, Malte LINK

The Value of Work-Based Learning in the Perpective of Lifelong Learningrecognize and Validate Transversals Competences in the Third Sector
Marcone, Valerio Massimo LINK

Vocational Education and Training for Migrant Young People in Spain
Marhuenda, Fernando LINK

Inclusive Vocational Teacher Education in Austria and Germany – A Country Comparison of Personal Characteristics of Pre-Service Teachers
Miesera, Susanne / Moser, Daniela LINK

A Quantitative Cross-Regional Analysis of the Spanish VET Systems from an Integrated Approach
Moso-Diez, Monica / Mondaca-Soto, Antonio / Gamboa-Navarro, Juan P. / Albizu-Echevarria, Mikel LINK

Getting into VET and Designing One’s Career in VET
Nägele Christof / Düggeli, Albert LINK

Using High-Fidelity Simulators in VET Teaching Practices – a VET Teacher Perspective
Nyström, Sofia / Ahn, Song-ee LINK

Practical-Oriented Approach to TVET Entrepreneurship Training
Ovchinnikova, Nataliia LINK

The Undeserved Marginality of the Initial Italian VET System: Searching for Key Actions for Promotion
Perini, Marco / Pellegrini, Alice LINK

Market Conditions of International VET Providers: German Providers in Comparison to Market Leaders
Peters, Susanne / Meyne, Lisa LINK

Cross-Boundary Learning Experience Urges HE Institutions to Change. Evidence from an Italian Case-Study
Potestio, Andrea / Magni, Francesco / Bertuletti, Paolo LINK

Vocational Decision-Making Based on Gender: Motivations and Expectations of IVET Students in Spain
Rego-Agraso, Laura / Rios–de-Deus, María-Paula / Mosq LINKuera-González, María-José / Rodicio-García, María-Luisa LINK

Vocational Education and Training and Intervention and Regulation Policies in Argentina
Riquelme, Graciela Clotilde / Herger, Natalia / Sassera, Jorgelina Silvia LINK

Teaching Competences of VET Teachers in Russia and Serbia
Saniter, Andreas / Harberts, Vivian LINK

Quality of Initial Vocational Education and Training: Perceptions of Disenchanted, Enthusiastic, Moderate and Fluctuating Apprentices / Sauli, Florinda / Wenger, Matilde / Berger, Jean-Louis LINK

Balancing Standardisation and Individualisation: How Counties Develop Two-year Apprenticeships for Low-achieving Students in Upper Secondary VET in Norway
Schmid, Evi LINK

Skills (Mis)Match Analysis in the EU: Disaggregating „Objective“ Mismatch Measures and the Role of Vocational Qualifications
Sekmokas, Mantas LINK

Pre-Apprenticeship for Refugees in Switzerland
Stalder, Barbara E. / Kammermann, Marlise / Lehmann, Sabine / Schönbächler, Marie-Theres LINK

Challenges Skilled Migrants Face in Accessing Their Previous Vocation in a New Country
Teräs, Marianne / Eliasson, Eva / Osman, Ali LINK

Learning Outcomes as a Social Construct and Example of Boundary Crossing Between Societal Sectors
Ure, Odd Björn LINK

Vocational Teachers’ Experiences in Enacting of Competence-Based Curricula in Lithuania and Italy
Vaitkute, Lina / Perini, Marco LINK

From Practice to Theory and Back Again: Experiences of VET Students in the Tension Between Vocational and Scientific Learning Processes
Vötsch, Mario LINK

Person-centred Approach to Assess Quality Perceptions of Role Stress in Dual Initial Vocational Education and Training Apprentices
Wenger, Matilde / Sauli, Florinda / Berger, Jean-Louis LINK